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Anti Ram Raid Bollards


In response to the increased risk of terrorism and violent theft, the British Standards Institute has published two Publicly Available Specifications, PAS 68 & PAS 69, relating to the performance, selection and installation of vehicle security barriers, which in connection with anti-ram raid systems typically take the form of bollards, road blockers or heavy-duty gates.

These documents are summarized as follows:

PAS 68: Impact test specifications for vehicle security barrier systems

This specifies a performance classification for vehicle security barriers (VSB) and their foundations when subjected to a horizontal impact. When tested, the VSB system shall bring the vehicle to rest, or redirect an impacting vehicle on the approach side of the barrier.

PAS 68 involves the physical impact testing of perimeter security products at varying speeds with different vehicle types. This ranges from medium size saloon cars to large trucks, measuring the penetration of the load carrying part of the vehicle beyond the barrier. The existence of PAS 68 enables business and organizations to specify assured levels of protection against hostile vehicles, at a level that is in proportion with the risk of attack at their specific site.

Further details relating to PAS 68, including the method of vehicle impact testing and the performance classification codes employed can be found in the document referenced at the end of this Technical Bulletin.

PAS 69: Guidance for the selection, installation and use of vehicle security barrier systems

This document complements PAS 68 providing guidance on the selection, installation, foundations and use of PAS 68 tested security products, taking into account site specific conditions. PAS 69 suggests a maximum gap of 1.2m between the installed, upright faces of successive security products, to ensure that vehicles are prevented from encroaching freely between the barriers.

Whist the main focus of PAS 68 & 69 is on high risk/strategic installations and the threat from terrorism; they nevertheless are commonly employed in deciding on the level of protection required against the risk of ram raid theft.

The guidance within PAS 69 concerning the selection of vehicle barrier systems including, amongst other methods, fixed or retraceable bollards, can be an involved process, which includes classifying the hostile vehicle in terms of type, vehicle weight and impact speed, in order that the desired level of protection proportionate to the risk is achieved. It is not envisaged that Consultants will normally be involved in the specification process, but that this is undertaken by the specialist manufacturers/suppliers of the equipment in conjunction with the Insured.



Consultants should remain alert to the ram-raid risk, which in recent times has included attacks on retail, warehouse and motor trade premises, targeting ATMs and highly attractive commodities such as high-end fashions, jewellery, electrical and electronic goods and vintage and luxury cars. In addition to the loss of stock, ram-raids can also cause significant damage to the premises structure and its contents, often resulting in costly business interruption.

Factors requiring consideration when assessing the need for anti-ram-raid bollards will typically include:

  • Premises occupancy;

  • The attractive nature and value (including EML) of the commodities at risk;

  • The location of the premises and vulnerability to ram raid attack;

  • Area crime rate and ram raid history;

  • The anticipated extent of collateral damage and business interruption.

Unless governed by specific Client Service Instructions, a requirement for anti-ram raid bollards would normally come into contention when dealing with extreme or high hazard commodities as defined elsewhere in ATLAS (Technical Procedure – Specifying Intruder Alarms refers), with a Theft EML >£50,000. However, this is not intended to be prescriptive, but rather is indicated as a guide on which Consultants should make a judgement based on the prevailing circumstances.

Where an ATM is installed, the risk of a ram-raid and subsequent property damage and disruption may be such that anti-ram-raid protection may be required, notwithstanding the fact that the that the ATM and its contents are not included in the policy cover. 

In the event that protection is required, the following revised risk improvement wording is to be employed:

“Subject to Local Authority planning permission (where necessary), the (indicate the feature of the premises requiring protection – e.g., the glazed frontage) is to be protected by anti-ram raid bollards certified to BSI PAS 68: Impact test specification for vehicle security barrier systems, and selected and installed in accordance with BSI PAS 69: Guidance for the selection, installation and use of vehicle security barrier systems”.

Companies in the manufacture and installation of anti-ram raid bollards and which are members of the Perimeter Security Suppliers Association include:

ATG Access Ltd. - 

Frontier Pitts Ltd. - 

Heald Ltd. - 

Marshalls Mono Ltd. (Street Furniture Division) - 

Inevitably, this approach will exclude a significant number of cheaper grade, untested products, but this is unavoidable. As a rough guide, the cost for the supply and installation of a three-bollard system employing certified products for typical retail premises is circa £3,000 which is around twice the cost of a similar system using heavy duty, but nonetheless, non-certified products which, whilst acting as a deterrent, may not thwart a determined attack.

This is consistent with normal RiskSTOP policy of promoting “approved products and services” where they exist.

In circumstances where there is existing bollard protection, efforts should be made to determine whether this comprises of certified equipment in accordance with PAS 68. However, it is recognised that unless the protection has been specified by the Client, this may prove difficult.



A leading manufacturer of vehicle security barriers, Frontier Pitts Ltd., has published an excellent guide on PAS 68 and impact testing, which has been posted in ATLAS.

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